Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Treatment (OCD)
Types of OCD
The following are not the only types of OCD, obsessions and compulsions will generally fall under these categories.
This is a need to repeatedly check something for harm, leaks, damage, or fire. Checking can include repeatedly monitoring taps, alarms, car doors, house lights, or other appliances too.
Contamination or Mental Contamination
This occurs when a person with OCD feels a constant and overbearing need to wash and obsesses that objects they touch are contaminated. The fear is that the individual or the object may become contaminated or ill unless repeated cleaning takes place.
This is the inability to throw away used or useless possessions.
Ruminating involves an extended and unfocused obsessive train of thoughts that focus on wide-ranging, broad, and often philosophical topics, such as what happens after death or the beginning of the universe.
These are often violent, horrific, obsessional thoughts that often involve hurting a loved one violently or sexually.
Symmetry and orderliness
Symmetry and orderliness
A person with OCD may also obsess about objects being lined up to avoid discomfort or harm.
Signs and Symptoms
People with OCD may have symptoms of obsessions, compulsions, or both. These symptoms can interfere with all aspects of life, such as work, school, and personal relationships. Common symptoms include:
Fear of germs or contamination
Unwanted forbidden or taboo thoughts involving sex, religion, and harm
Aggressive thoughts towards others or self
Having things symmetrical or in a perfect order
Excessive cleaning and/or hand washing
Ordering and arranging things in a particular, precise way
Repeatedly checking on things
Causes and Risk Factors
Twin and family studies have shown that people with first-degree relatives (such as a parent, sibling, or child) who have OCD are at a higher risk for developing OCD themselves. The risk is higher if the first-degree relative developed OCD as a child or teen.
Ongoing research continues to explore the connection between genetics and OCD and may help improve OCD diagnosis and treatment.
Brain Structure and Functioning
Brain imaging techniques have allowed researchers to study the activity of specific areas of the brain, leading to the discovery that some parts of the brain are different in people with OCD when compared to those without. Despite this finding, it is not known exactly how these differences relate to the development of OCD. Imbalances in the brain chemicals serotonin and glutamate may play a part in OCD.
People who have experienced abuse (physical or sexual) in childhood or other trauma are at an increased risk for developing OCD.
The behavioral theory suggests that people with OCD associate certain objects or situations with fear. They learn to avoid those things or learn to perform ‘rituals’ to help reduce the fear. This fear and avoidance or ritual cycle may begin during a period of intense stress, such as when starting a new job or just after an important relationship comes to an end.
Once the connection between an object and the feeling of fear becomes established, people with OCD begin to avoid that object and the fear it generates, rather than confronting or tolerating the fear.
Most people have unwelcome or intrusive thoughts at certain times, but for individuals with OCD, the importance of those thoughts are exaggerated.
How to overcome OCD?
The available treatments for OCD;
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation